statehood on May 30, 1987. Goa was included as twenty-fifth state of
India. Goa state has two districts namely North Goa, which is headquartered
at Panaji and South Goa, which is headquartered at Margao.
South Goa District covers the entire southern part of Goa state. Arabian sea is to the west of district,
North Goa district to the North and Uttar Kannada district of Karnataka in the East and South.
South Goa is situated between the latitudinal paralles of 15 degree 29' 32" N and 14 degree 53' 57" N
and longitudimal parallels of 73degree 46' 21" E and 74 degree 20' 11" E.
From north to south and from east to west the district spans a distance of 86 kms and 40 kms respectively.
The total geographical area of the district is 1966 sq kms..
Goa is a part of Konkan area. Goa has hills, low and highland areas. Geographically Goa has mainly three natural
divisions namely the Low lands, the Plateaus and the Mountain region.
Low Lands : Low land area is mainly coastal lines. It is about 110 km long. Many beaches are along the coast in
this area. Many rivers flow east to east in this area therefore this area land is fertile. This area is thickly
Plateau Lands: The plateau region is found between the mountain region in the east and the lowlands in the west.
Plateau land height ranges from 30 metres to 100 metres. In this region mainly plenty of laterite stone is found.
It is used for building the houses. Some of the part of plateau land is called headland of Goa. Light houses are
built on these healdlands. Land in the plateau region is not fertile, few crops are taken in this region.
Mountainuous region: Sahyadri mountains are to the east of South Goa. This part is covered with dense forest.
In this area, some of the mountains are very steep. In South Goa, the peaks are Chandranath at Paroda,
Dudhsagar in Sanguem taluka and Cormolghant in Canacona taluka. Many streams and rivers flow from this region
to lowands. In South Goa, the rivers are Zuari, Talpona, Sal and Galgibag. Rivers are used for transporation.
Inland waterways play an important role in transport of mineral ores from the mining sites in Sanguem taluka such
as Costi, Kirpal, Netravalim, Rivona, Ducorcond and Kuddegal to the Mormugao harbour for export South Goa is rich
in natural resources like iron, bauxite and manganese ore. These ores are exported mainly to China, Japan, South Korea
and some European countries.
is well connected by road, rail, water and air ways. In
Goa there are three main national highways N.H.4A, N.H.17,
N.H.17A. Panaji, the capital city of Goa is connected by
N.H.4A from Belgaum in Karnataka. The N.H.17 starts in
Mahad in Maharastra state and enters in Goa through
Patradevi and passes through talukas Pernem, Bardez,
Tiswadi, Salcete and Canacona talukas. Third highway,
N.H.17A is from Cortalim to Mormugao harbour. Cities
Panaji and Margao are well connected by road from Mumbai,
Pune, Kolhapur, Miraj cities in Maharashtra and Banglore,
Belgaum, Hubali cities in Karnataka.
Goa is connected by rail route through Konkan Railway and
Southern Railway from Delhi. Also, it is well connected by
air routes from Bombay and Delhi. Goa has an international
airport at Dabolim. The distance from Margao to Dabolim
airport is 29 kms.
Most of the rivers in Goa are used for waterways. Ferry
boats were means of crossing rivers in Goa. Rivers Mandovi
and Zuari are being used for carrying ore to Mormugao
harbour. Goa is also connected by waterway from Bombay.
has hot climate as it lies within the tropics. There is no
much change in climate throught the year. Daily
temperature range is not very high. Goa gets rains in the
months June, July, August and September. June-September is
the mansoon season here. The rainfall is more in the
mountain region than the coastal region. Goa gets heavy
rain from South-West monsoon winds. Goa has cool climate
during then months October-January. It starts geting
warmer from February and it remains till May.
Rice is the most important crop in Goa. Due to warm humid
climate rice is mainly grown here and it grown in the
coastal region. After rainy season, rice, chillies, onions
crops are grown in Goa. Cash crops are also grown in Goa.
Mainly plantation of Cashew, Coconut, Mangoes, Areca palm,
Kokum and Jackfruit is done in Goa.
e) People and Culture
: According to Ancient Indian Mythology is said that Goa
was reclaimed from the sea. It is believed that Sixth
Avatar of Vishnu Sage, Parshuram created the Sahyadri
range and struck an arrow into the western seas. The arrow
is said to have sent the seas rolling back to create
Gomantak or Goa.
It is believed that Aryan migrated to Goa around 2400 BC.
Original tribals migrated in hills due to Aryan arrival in
this part. It is believed that Sumerian civilization was
existed dating back 2000 BC. These people introduced their
ideas of all types with the result that the ownership of
the land vested in the main village diety. The
co-operative farming turned into common holdership or
villages who were considered to be founders of the village
commune and its administration took a form of oligarchic
democrocy. The Aryans of the first wave accepted this type
of administration and improved upon it.
Mainly Aryans consisted of Bhojas, Chediyas, Kshatriyas
and Brahmins were arrived in Goa. Bhojas ruled over Goa
from aobout 4th century AD to 6th century AD. It is
believed that Brahmins were migrated to Goa by Parashurama
from Kasmir and the banks of the river Sarawati. Kadambas
also ruled over Goa, they were originally from Karnataka.
They ruled from Chandrapura modern Chnador on the banks of
the river Khushavati. Rulers from Vijayanagar Empure also
ruled over Goa. Muslim rulers also ruled over Goa. It has
also impact on the life of the people. Muslim art and
architecutre can be seen in buidlings and mosques in Goa.
Goa was under Protuguese rule for about 450 years. Afonso
de Albuqureque, first portuguese attacked Goa and occupied
it. Due to Portuguese rule over Goa, here Christian
religion spread very fast.
In Goa Hindu, Muslim, Christian religions are found. Here
temples, churches and mosques are existed in many numbers.
All community festivals are celebrated in this state with
Link to Demography